The Three Types of Immunity and How They are Acquired (Part III)

Community immunity occurs when people are protected by those around them. This type of protection is indirect in that it does not involve physical components of immunity, such as antibodies, but rather results when a pathogen is less likely to infect a susceptible person because of the high numbers of protected people around them. Because […]

The Three Types of Immunity and How They are Acquired (Part II)

Passive immunity, or immunity gained in a way other than from one’s own immune system, can occur in a few ways and can be life-saving. However, passive immunity is short-lived because the antibodies are not continually replenished as they would be in an individual whose immune system is responding directly. Passive immunity can occur in […]

The Three Types of Immunity and How They are Acquired (Part I)

(Part 1 of 3 Part Series) Have you ever thought about how immunity works? If so, you might have realized that immunity keeps us from becoming sick in different ways. Two types of immunity exist — active and passive: • Active immunity occurs when our own immune system is responsible for protecting us from a […]

Newest Threat to Global Health: Vaccine Hesitancy

Every year, the World Health Organization lists its top threats to global health. Alongside usual suspects like air pollution, cancer and heart disease, a newcomer has joined the 2019 edition: vaccine hesitancy. The anti-vaccine movement has gained momentum in recent years as parents refuse to vaccinate their children out of fear for autism and other […]

Measles Outbreak:

Details of situation: Five measles cases, four between the ages of 12 to 21 months, have been reported in three different counties within Southeast Texas. Vaccination remains the most effective method for preventing measles. Genotyping has revealed the cases were B3 strain, the most common strain currently circulating in Mexico and the second most common […]

Parents’ Varied Concerns About Vaccines Should Be Addressed

Several studies have attempted to define the reasons why parents are vaccine hesitant, and the most common factors are: 44% of parents reported concern over pain associated with receiving multiple injections during a single visit 34% expressed unease about receiving too many vaccines at a single visit 26% worried about the development of autism or […]


Herd immunity is a fundamental concept that contributes to the success of many vaccination programs. Control of many vaccine preventable diseases is contingent on a significant proportion of the population in a community being immune. Depending on the disease, the percentage of individuals required to achieve herd immunity in a community ranges from 30% to […]

Vaccine Testing prior to approval

Vaccine development is a long and arduous process, often lasting many years and involving a combination of public and private partnerships. The current system for developing, testing, and regulating vaccines requires that the vaccines demonstrate both safety and efficacy before licensure and that long-term safety is monitored (; Fig 1). The first step in vaccine […]

Questioning whether to vaccinate or not? Please read below before you decide.

Immunizations have led to a significant decrease in rates of vaccine-preventable diseases and have made a significant impact on the health of children. However, some parents express concerns about vaccine safety and the necessity of vaccines. The concerns of parents must be taken into account. All parents want healthy children but, they differ in which […]


Can HPV-9/Gardasil prevent skin cancer? Can it heal warts? The HPV vaccine, which protects against several strains of the Human Paplloma virus shows potential for preventing new spots of skin cancer from popping up in people who have had skin cancer in the past, a new report of two patients’ cases suggests. Previous research has […]

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